All types of toothbrushes, their pros and cons

Types of toothbrushes - how to choose which is best?The long and interesting history of the toothbrush began more than one millennium ago, when various chewing sticks were used as brushes. A brush that resembled a bunch of bristles on a stick came to Russia during the time of Ivan the Terrible.

Since those distant times, the brush mechanism has undergone considerable changes, and today it is more and more difficult to choose this item for yourself to maintain oral hygiene, because there are too many brushes, and every year they are becoming more perfect and functional.

The content of the article:

  1. All types of toothbrushes today
  2. Types of toothbrushes by material and hardness
  3. Toothbrush sizes and brush head shape
  4. Toothbrush bristles
  5. Additional features of toothbrushes
  6. Toothbrush care rules – how often to change?

All types of toothbrushes today – conventional, electric, ionic, ultrasonic, etc.

Once every few months we go to the store (or the pharmacy) and face the most difficult choice – which brush to choose, so that it would be inexpensive and clean well, and would not “cut” the gums.

And, as a rule, we take the first one that comes across at an adequate price, because “yes, what’s the difference!”

And there is a difference. And the correct choice of the brush will depend not only on the cleanliness of the teeth, but also on the quality of the enamel, and the condition of the gums, etc.

Therefore, before going for a brush, study the basic rules for choosing.

Video: Toothbrush – how to choose? Types of brushes and advice from doctors

Let’s start with the types of modern toothbrushes.

Mechanical toothbrush


  • The most affordable cost (100-300 rubles).
  • No need to purchase additional attachments or batteries.
  • Possibility of frequent replacement due to low price.
  • Does not injure enamel and gums during long brushing of teeth (if, of course, the rigidity is chosen correctly).

Mechanical toothbrush


  1. It takes a long time to completely remove plaque from the teeth.

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Electric Toothbrush


  • Saves time and effort.
  • Perfectly cleans teeth from plaque.
  • Protects against tartar formation.
  • You can change the speed of rotation of the head.


  1. It often injures the gums.
  2. Incorrect speed or dental problems can damage the enamel.
  3. The high price for both the brush and the attachments for it (2000-6000 rubles).
  4. There are times when nozzles for a particular brush are simply not available.
  5. After a while, there is a violation of the tightness of the battery compartment.
  6. Not everyone likes the vibration in their mouths.
  7. You can use it no more than 2 times a week due to the rapid erasure of the enamel.

Electric Toothbrush


  • VSD.
  • Nausea and headaches.
  • Periodontal disease, stomatitis and gingivitis.
  • Previous operations in the oral cavity, including oncological.

Ultrasonic toothbrush

  • You can do without toothpaste.
  • No mechanical contact with teeth is required (such a brush is capable of breaking plaque and destroying harmful flora already at a distance of about 5 mm).
  • You can buy attachments to remove hard deposits or whiten your enamel.
  • One of its functions is to have a healing effect on the gums.


  1. High cost (about 6-10 thousand rubles)
  2. Many contraindications.
  3. You can use it no more than 3 times a week.

Ultrasonic toothbrush


  • The presence of braces or implants.
  • Heart failure and any problems with the cardiovascular system.
  • Diseases of the blood.
  • Epilepsy.
  • VSD.
  • Pregnancy.
  • Oncological and precancerous diseases in the oral cavity.
  • Violation of the process of keratinization of the epithelium / tissues of the mucous membrane.

Orthodontic tooth and gum brush

This type of “tool” is a classic toothbrush, that is, a mechanical one. But with a special cutout on the bristles.


  • The possibility of full cleaning of teeth in the presence of braces or other dental systems without damage to the braces themselves and with complete cleaning of enamel from plaque.

Orthodontic tooth and gum brush


  1. It can only be made to order.
  2. High cost (although lower than the cost of an electric brush) – about 800 rubles.

Ionic toothbrush

The principle of operation is based on the function of the brush rod, which is coated with titanium dioxide particles. At the moment of combining the brush with water or saliva, this substance attracts hydrogen ions – which, in turn, eliminate harmful bacteria.

Outwardly, the brush looks simple, like a classic primitive brush from the 80s, but with a rod inside. When you press a special plate, a flow of negatively charged ions is created – it is they who draw out the “positive ions” of the existing dental plaque.

Advantages (according to manufacturers):

  • Rapid restoration of acid-base balance in the mouth.
  • More active work of the paste.
  • Elimination of plaque at the molecular level.
  • Long-term preservation of the therapeutic effect due to the ionization of saliva.
  • Saturation of the oral cavity with oxygen.


  1. The cost of the brush is about 1000 rubles.

Ionic toothbrush


  • Smoking. The reason is simple: the interaction of ions and nicotine leads to the destruction of the walls of the mucous membranes.
  • Oncological diseases.
  • Rapid drying out of the mouth.

Types of toothbrushes by material and degree of hardness – how to choose the right one?

Speaking about the degree of stiffness of the bristle, they mean the diameter of its fiber. The thicker the bristles, the harder the brush, respectively.

The stiffness of the bristles are as follows:

  • Very soft (approx. – ultrasoft, extrasoft, sensitive) Suitable for babies up to 5 years old and for adults with very sensitive enamel and gums, with periodontitis 1-2 tbsp., Enamel damage.
  • Soft (approx. – soft). It is indicated for expectant and lactating mothers, children 5-12 years old, as well as for diabetes mellitus and bleeding gums.
  • Medium (approx. – medium). The most popular brush for healthy enamel and oral cavity for adults and children over 12 years old.
  • Hard and very hard (approx. – hard, extra-hard). Option for adults familiar firsthand with rapid plaque formation. And also for people using braces and other orthodontic structures.

And now a little about the material from which the brushes are made.

No matter how popular the idea of ​​the naturalness of everything and everywhere, dentists strongly do not recommend brushes with natural bristles

And there are several reasons:

  1. In such brushes, bacteria multiply 2 times faster, and accordingly, it will also have to be changed more often.
  2. In addition, the tips of pork bristles (yes, it is from this bristle that brushes marked “natural” are created) cannot be rounded off, and they can significantly injure the gums and the enamel itself.
  3. It is also worth noting that natural bristles quickly lose their shape and properties – they fluff up, break.

Therefore, the ideal option is nylon bristles and a handle made of safe plastic.

Toothbrush bristles

Toothbrush sizes and brush head shape – what’s important?

  • Ideal length of the working area of ​​the brush it is easy to check – the brush should capture 2-2.5 teeth. Only then is the maximum cleaning effect for the chewing group of teeth achieved.
  • The length of the brush head chosen by children – 18-25 mm, for dads and mums – maximum 30 mm.
  • No corners – only rounded shapesto minimize the risk of mucosal injury.
  • The area where the brush head is connected to the handle must be that the “spring effect” relieves pressure on the soft and hard tissues in the mouth.
  • As for the handle – it should be thick, fit comfortably in the hand and have special anti-slip inserts.

Toothbrush head and sizes

Toothbrush bristles – single-level, double-level, multi-level?

All the bristles on the brushes are collected in special bundles, which are already placed in a special way on the working surface.

For example, strictly parallel, or at a specific angle.

It is according to this arrangement that the brushes are distributed over …

  1. Sibling.
  2. Two-level.
  3. Three-level.
  4. Multilevel.

The brush can also be selected according to the number of beams:

  • 23 bundles – for babies up to 6 years old.
  • 30-40 bundles – for teenagers.
  • 40-45 – for mums and dads.
  • Mono-beam brushes – for owners of braces.

The choice of the brush by the arrangement of the beams:

  1. Hygienic: beams are even and straight, of the same length. Most often, this option is found among children’s brushes.
  2. Preventive… On these brushes, the tufts can be located in completely different directions, they can have different lengths and rigidity. There may also be rubber bristles on the sides to massage the gums.
  3. Special… Option for cleansing plaque from implants, etc. Buy in pharmacies or to order.

Video: How to choose a toothbrush?

Additional attachments and capabilities of toothbrushes

It’s just that a brush rarely suits anyone today. And it’s not just fashion: it just doesn’t make sense to give up on innovation if it’s beneficial.

Today, toothbrushes boast the following features and additions:

  • Rubber inserts on the handleto prevent the brush from slipping out of your hands.
  • Rubber embossed tongue cleaning pad on the back of the head.
  • Bristle indicator, which changes color by the time it is time to change the brush to a new one.
  • Multilevel and multidirectional bristles, which allows you to clean your teeth and tooth spaces as efficiently as possible.
  • Ribbed surface for gum massage.
  • Use of silver ions (double effect).

As for electric brushes, their capabilities are also gradually expanding:

  1. Ability to change attachments.
  2. Possibility to regulate the rotation speed (on electric brushes).
  3. Rotation of the head and / or bristles.
  4. Vibration.
  5. Rotation + vibration.

Toothbrush care rules – how often should you replace your toothbrushes with new ones?

Like all products related to the field of personal hygiene, brushes also have their own rules of care:

  • Each family member has his own brush.
  • The brushes of different family members should not come into contact with each other. Either special caps (vented!) Should be used, or a separate cup for each brush. This rule especially applies to children’s and adult brushes: they are stored separately!
  • It is not recommended to store a wet brush in a closed case – this way bacteria multiply 2 times faster.
  • Storing toothbrushes with razors or similar tools is not permitted!
  • The maximum life of a toothbrush is 3 months for medium hardness, 1-2 months for soft hardness.
  • After each cleaning procedure, the instrument is thoroughly washed (laundry soap is recommended) and then removed to dry in a special glass.
  • It is unacceptable for the brush to lie on a wet surface or sour in a long-unwashed common glass.
  • It is recommended to disinfect the brush once a week with a special solution for teeth (approx. Antibacterial rinse).
  • If there was treatment for gingivitis, stomatitis, etc. – The brush should be replaced immediately after recovery.

The website thanks you for your attention to the article – we hope it was useful to you. Please share your feedback and advice with our readers!

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