The organs located in the abdominal cavity, as well as in the pelvic area, have a certain position. This is ensured by the diaphragm, the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall and, which is especially important, the ligamentous apparatus and the muscles of the pelvic floor.
At the same time, the uterus and its appendages have physiological mobility. It is necessary for the normal development of pregnancy, as well as the functioning of the adjacent organs: the bladder and rectum.
More often the uterus is located anteflexio and anteverzio. The uterus should be in the pelvic area in the center between the bladder and rectum. In this case, the body of the uterus can be tilted anteriorly and forms an open angle with the cervix (anteflexio) and an open angle with the vagina (anteversio), as well as posteriorly (retroflexio and retroverzio). This is a variant of the norm.
What should be attributed to pathology?
Both excessive mobility and limitation of the mobility of the uterus can be attributed to pathological phenomena.
If during a gynecological examination or ultrasound examination, retroflexia is detected, this means that the body of the uterus is tilted posteriorly, while the angle between the body of the uterus and the cervix is open posteriorly.
The reasons that contribute to the deviation of the uterus posteriorly:
With infantilism and hypoplasia (underdevelopment) of the genitals there can be a deviation of the uterus posteriorly, but the uterus is not fixed, but there is its mobility. This is due, first of all, to the weakness of the ligaments, which should keep the uterus in a normal position. This is a consequence of the insufficient function of the ovaries, which are observed with a delay in the development of the body.
Features of the constitution. Asthenic girls are characterized by insufficient muscle and connective tissue tone, which in this case can lead to insufficiency of the ligamentous apparatus (the ligaments that hold the uterus in the correct position) and weakness of the pelvic floor muscles. Under these conditions, the uterus becomes excessively mobile. When the bladder is full, the uterus will tilt posteriorly and slowly return to its original position. In this case, the bowel loops will fall into the space between the uterus and the bladder, continuing to press on the uterus. This is how the tilt is first formed, and then the posterior bend of the uterus.
Dramatic weight loss… A sudden change in weight can contribute to the prolapse of the abdominal organs, changes in intra-abdominal pressure and an increase in pressure on the genitals.
Multiple childbirth… With insufficient tone of the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall and the muscles of the pelvic floor, intra-abdominal pressure changes, and the gravity of the internal organs can be transmitted to the uterus, which contributes to the formation of retroflection. Complications in childbirth and the postpartum period can also slow down the involution of the uterus and other parts of the reproductive apparatus, which can contribute to the formation of an abnormal position of the uterus.
Age. In postmenopausal women, a decrease in the level of female sex hormones is observed, which leads to a decrease in the size of the uterus, a decrease in its tone and weakness of the ligaments and muscles of the pelvic floor, as a result of deviation and prolapse of the uterus.
Volumetric formations. Ovarian tumor, as well as myomatous nodes on the anterior surface of the uterus, can contribute to its deviation.
Inflammatory changes… Perhaps the most common cause of fixed (pathological) retroflection of the uterus.
The inflammatory process, which is accompanied by the formation of adhesions between the body of the uterus and the peritoneum, covering the rectum and the Douglas space (the space between the uterus and rectum) leads to retroflection of the uterus. In this case, a fixed retroposition of the uterus usually occurs.
What diseases can lead to retroflection of the uterus:
- sexually transmitted infections (chlamydia, gonorrhea, etc.);
- surgical interventions leading to the development of an adhesive process in the pelvic area;
- endometriosis (the appearance of endometrial cells outside the uterine cavity).
- The curvature of the uterus prevents blood from flowing out.
No, it does not interfere.
- The curvature of the uterus prevents sperm from entering.
It is a myth!
- If the girl is planted early, then the development of the bend of the uterus is possible.
There is no relationship between the time the baby started sitting and the development of the bend. Early sitting can lead to problems with the spine and pelvic bones, but not with the position of the uterus.
- Bending of the uterus leads to infertility.
It is not the bending of the uterus that can lead to infertility, but the underlying disease that caused it. These can be transferred STIs, the presence of adhesions that interfere with the patency of the fallopian tubes or their mobility, endometriosis.
- The curvature of the uterus must be treated.
The bend of the uterus does not need to be treated! No pills, ointments, massages, exercises – all this will help.
However, when the uterus bends, there can be painful periods, chronic pain in the lower abdomen and pain during sex. But! This is not a consequence of the bending of the uterus, but of those diseases that caused the bend of the uterus and they are the ones who require treatment!
Is there prevention?
Of course, there is prevention. And she needs to be given special attention.
- Use of barrier methods of contraception to prevent contracting STIs. As well as timely treatment if the disease is confirmed.
- If you have pain (menstruation, sex life, or chronic pelvic pain), do not delay visiting your gynecologist.
- Regular physical activity, including abdominal and pelvic floor exercises.
- In the postpartum period, strengthening the pelvic floor muscles should precede the strengthening of the abdominal muscles.
If you have any questions related to women’s health, immediately contact your gynecologist.
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