Chickenpox in common people – in medical reference books this disease is called chickenpox. The causative agent is a common herpes virus, very tenacious, which, as you know, lives in the cells of every human body. There is an opinion, confirmed by doctors, that it is better to get sick in childhood, because children endure this ailment much easier. Nevertheless, when the period of an epidemic begins in children’s institutions – and this, most often, autumn – parents are worried about the most important questions – how to protect the baby, how to determine the symptoms in children for sure, how to treat chickenpox in a child?
The content of the article:
The incubation period in children; what is chickenpox, how do children get infected?
It is believed that this type of smallpox is the only viral disease that remains the most common infectious disease contingent of children to this day. Experts say that chickenpox can only be recovered once in a lifetime, since the recovered body develops immunity in the future. Although, sometimes there are cases when people get sick 2 times in their lives.
Most often affected children of the age category from 2 to 10 years old. As a rule, the most susceptible to the disease are those children who are in kindergartens and schools, attend circles, sections, etc. Newborn babies under 6 months of age cannot become infected, because from birth they retain the immunity received from the mother and supported by breastfeeding.
The virus is very volatile, the route of transmission of infection – airborne… This virus can settle on the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose and mouth, the entire surface of the respiratory tract, from where it enters the body with ease and high speed.
In children, external manifestations are initially reddish spots on the surface of the skin, which then form small blisters filled with fluid.
It should be noted that – this is a persistent infection and a rapidly spreading disease between people – that is why seasonal annual epidemics in childcare facilities… With the current of air and dust, the virus freely penetrates into neighboring apartments and premises. If in a kindergarten one pupil fell ill with chickenpox, it means that all other children are also susceptible to infection, most likely they will get sick.
The epidemic picture of the incidence is explained by the duration of its incubation period from 2 to 3 weeks… During the incubation period, the disease manifests itself in no way. Children look absolutely healthy and active. But during this period, a sick child, who does not even have any external manifestations, poses an epidemic threat to all the people around him and can infect them. When the incubation period passes and the phase of the most active division of the virus in the body begins, the child’s well-being begins to deteriorate, all the typical symptoms of chickenpox appear. When the disease is on the wane the virus stops its activity after 5 days from the appearance of the most recent rashes on the body.
Symptoms: how does it start and what does it look like in children?
In the overwhelming majority of cases, chickenpox shows a typical picture, and in all children it manifests itself, one might say, the same.
Among the main symptoms of chickenpox the following can be distinguished:
- Sharply increasing body temperature (up to 40 degrees C);
- Pain in the head, limbs, and muscles;
- Irritability, tearfulness baby, severe weakness and apathy;
- Unreasonable anxiety, sleep disturbances;
- Decreased appetite in a child and even refusal to eat;
- The appearance on the entire surface of the body of characteristic rashes spots and bubbles that do not affect only the surfaces of the palms and feet.
Rashes are pink-red spots of small size, which quite rapidly cover the entire body of the child in a very short period of time.
- After a while, these pink spots begin to turn into bubbles with clear liquid inside;
- Blisters cause severe itching… The child begins to bother itching, he seeks to comb the bubbles on the skin – which is absolutely forbidden to do. Parents should remember this and do their best to prevent the baby from scratching itchy blisters on the skin. Otherwise, an infection can get into the combed wounds, causing a serious complication – a secondary infection of the skin;
- The spots on the skin dry up within 3 days and covered with a red crust. But in the process of the disease, regular rashes appear on the patient’s body, in the typical form of the disease – in the period from 4 to 8 days, accompanied by all of the above symptoms of this disease;
- Crusts covering spots on the skin begin to fall off after 2 weeks… At the site of the rash after chickenpox, subtle traces remain on the skin, which are initially painted in a pale pink color, then merge in color with healthy skin, without standing out. But, if the child has been combing the blisters on the skin during the illness, scars of various sizes can form in place of these scratches, which remain forever.
Forms of the disease in children; how long does it take?
How long does chickenpox last in children? It is impossible to answer unequivocally. The body of each person is individual, and the process is different for everyone. If we take the averaged data, then we can say – the appearance of new spots is suspended in the period 5 – 8 days of the disease… Since that time, it is believed that the disease is declining and the child is recovering. Skin marks from spots take place within 3 weeks…
All cases require completely different treatment – it depends entirely on the form of the disease.
Exists typical chickenpoxwhich is mild, moderate or severe, and atypical chickenpox…
- In a mild form proceeds without fever and other symptoms. Only a few isolated spots and blisters may appear on the skin, which are also accompanied by itching.
- If the child is sick moderate chickenpox, his body becomes covered with characteristic spots, the patient develops a high temperature and symptoms of intoxication of the body. With an average severity, the body temperature is not more than 38 degrees C.
- Severe form in childhood, it is extremely rare – it usually manifests itself in adult patients. During the period of severe chickenpox, the patient’s body is almost completely covered with pockmarks with severely itchy blisters, while the body temperature rises sharply to 40 degrees. In a severe form, a large number of spots merging with each other appear on the human body, symptoms of general intoxication of the body appear. In rare cases, babies of the first year of life with weak immunity can get sick with a severe form. Pregnant women are also susceptible to this form, this must be remembered.
- TO atypical form include cases of the aggravated form, which is characterized by very pronounced manifestations of all symptoms, as well as the rudimentary form of the disease, in which chickenpox is completely asymptomatic.
Complications in children: what is dangerous for a child?
Subject to all sanitary and hygienic standards does not cause any complications… If, during the process of the disease, the bubbles on the skin become inflamed or were strongly combed, visible scars form in their place, which remain for life. More serious consequences of chickenpox in patients are practically not found. The only formidable complication – which, fortunately, occurs extremely rarely – is encephalomyelitis, the so-called inflammation of the brain.
Usually, treatment of chickenpox is carried out at home… There are no specific medicines for the treatment of chickenpox, they are not needed. Doctors recommend that the patient adhere to a certain diet, drink plenty of fluids, adhere to strict bed rest, take antiallergic drugs to prevent severe itching, lubricate the skin with soothing itching lotions, and the resulting bubbles – with brilliant green.
The Bologny.ru website warns: self-medication can harm your health! If you have any doubts about the symptoms and manifestations of a particular disease in a child, consult a doctor for advice, do not diagnose yourself!
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