During pregnancy, a woman and her unborn child are closely monitored by doctors. The gynecologist with whom you are registered makes an individual examination program for each of his patients, which the woman must adhere to for 9 months.
This program includes mandatory tests for pregnant women, which we will talk about in more detail today.
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Tests that are taken in the first trimester of pregnancy
The very first test in the first trimester, of course, is pregnancy test… This can be either a home test or a laboratory urine test. on the level of hCG hormones… It is carried out at a period of 5-12 weeks of pregnancy, because it is at this time that a woman begins to suspect that she is in a position. This test allows you to confirm that the pregnancy has actually occurred.
After receiving the results, the expectant mother should, as soon as possible, visit your gynecologistto register for pregnancy monitoring. During this visit, the doctor should perform full physical (measure height, pelvic bones, blood pressure) and gynecological examination…
During vaginal examination Your doctor should take the following tests from you:
- Papanicalau smear – detects the presence of abnormal cells;
- Microflora smear vagina;
- Bacterial culture and a smear from the cervical canal – reveal sensitivity to antibiotics;
- A smear to detect hidden genital infections…
If the pregnant woman has cervical erosion or signs, the doctor should do colposcopy…
After all these manipulations, the doctor will give you directions for tests that must be passed in the first trimester of pregnancy:
- Blood test during pregnancy:
- blood biochemistry;
- blood group and Rh factor;
- for syphilis;
- for HIV;
- for viral hepatitis B;
- for TORCH infections;
- to the sugar level;
- to identify anemia: iron deficiency and sickle cell;
- General urine analysis
- Direction to undergoing medical examination: ophthalmologist, neuropathologist, dentist, surgeon, therapist, endocrinologist and other specialists.
- Ultrasound of the uterus and its appendages
In addition to the above mandatory tests, your obstetrician-gynecologist at 10-13 weeks of gestation can appoint first perinatal screening, the so-called “Double Test”.
You will need to donate blood for two hormones (beta-hCG and PPAP-A), which store information about the child’s risks of birth defects and diseases (for example, Down’s syndrome).
Second trimester of pregnancy: tests
For a period of 13-26 weeks, during each visit to the antenatal clinic, the doctor must measure your weight, blood pressure, abdominal roundness and the height of the uterine fundus.
In the second trimester of pregnancy, you must definitely pass following analyzes:
- General urine analysis – allows you to identify a urinary tract infection, signs of preeclampsia and other abnormalities such as sugar or acetone in the urine;
- General blood analysis;
- Fetal ultrasound, during which the child is checked for violations of physical development, and a more accurate period of pregnancy is determined;
- Glucose tolerant test – appointed for a period of 24-28 weeks, determines the presence of latent gestational diabetes.
In addition to all of the above tests, for a period of 16-18 weeks, the obstetrician-gynecologist will offer you to undergo second perinatal screening, or “Triple Test”. You will be tested for hormones such as hCG, EX and AFP.
This test will help identify the risks of developing birth defects and chromosomal abnormalities.
List of tests in the third trimester of pregnancy
In the third trimester of pregnancy, you will need to visit the antenatal clinic once every two weeks. During the visit, the doctor will carry out standard manipulations: weighing, measuring blood pressure, roundness of the abdomen, height of the uterine fundus. Before each visit to the doctor’s office, you need to take general analysis of blood and urine…
At 30 weeks, you will need to complete all tests that were scheduled during the first perinatal visit in the first trimester of pregnancy. You can see their full list above.
In addition, you will need to go through following research:
- Fetal ultrasound + Doppler – appointed for a period of 32-36 weeks. The doctor will check the baby’s condition and examine the umbilical cord canal. If during the study a low placentation or placenta previa is revealed, then the ultrasound will need to be repeated at a later stage of pregnancy (38-39 weeks), so that the tactics of labor management can be determined;
- Fetal cardiotocography – appointed for the 33rd week of pregnancy. This study is necessary to check the prenatal state of the child. The doctor will monitor the baby’s motor activity and heart rate, and find out if the child has oxygen starvation.
If you have a normal pregnancy, but its period is already more than 40 weeks, the obstetrician-gynecologist will prescribe the following tests for you:
- Complete biophysical profile: Ultrasound and non-stress test;
- CTG monitoring;
- General urine analysis;
- 24-hour urine analysis according to Nicheporenko or according to Zimnitsky;
- Urine analysis for acetone.
These studies are necessary so that the doctor can decide when to expect the onset of labor, and whether such an expectation is safe for the baby and the mother.
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