A pregnant woman has to undergo a lot of tests on a regular basis, which sometimes annoys the expectant mother. However, prescribed studies are necessary, they allow you to assess the condition of a woman and determine whether the course of pregnancy deviates from the norm.
One of the mandatory items is urine analysis.
The content of the article:
- Why donate urine?
- Preparation for analysis, collection of material
- General analysis
- Zimnitsky test
- Analysis according to Nechiporenko
- Tank analysis
Why donate urine to pregnant women – types of urine tests during pregnancy
This mandatory research helps to identify problems at the earliest possible stage.
- First, the level of erythrocytes is assessed, the indicator for which should not be higher than 2-4. A higher level indicates a urinary tract infection.
- Secondly, the appearance of glucose in the urine is a sign of the development of diabetes mellitus in pregnant women. Normally, it should be absent. However, as blood sugar rises, it also appears in the urine. In this case, additional examinations are required.
- Third, pay attention to the level of protein. The maximum allowable level for this indicator is 0.33 g / l. A higher rate is one of the main indications for the development of preeclampsia – a severe complication of pregnancy.
Types of urine tests during pregnancy:
- General analysis Is the most common study. With its help, many indicators are assessed: color, acidity, transparency, protein, bilirubin, etc.
- Analysis according to Nechiporenko carried out if there is a suspicion of infection of the genitourinary organs.
- Analysis according to Zimnitsky also performed in case of possible infection and suspicion of renal failure.
- Sowing tank necessary to detect pathogenic microflora, the number of bacteria, their susceptibility to antibiotics.
How to take a urine test for a pregnant woman correctly – preparing for the analysis and collecting urine
If you neglect the rules of preparation for the collection of material, the results will be unreliable. This is fraught with unnecessary worries and the appointment of medications.
The preparation rules are as follows:
- Do not overexert yourself, give up intensive training, as this leads to the appearance of protein in the urine.
- Refuse salty, fried, spicy (for the same reasons).
- For collection, sterile dishes are used. There are special containers in the pharmacy. A regular jar of baby food is suitable, which must be washed with a soda solution and sterilized.
- It is necessary to wash the genitals, insert a cotton swab into the vagina, which will prevent secretions from entering the material.
- Urine is collected during the first trip to the toilet – immediately after waking up. This material will be the most informative. Even a layman will notice the differences: the urine is darker in color, more concentrated.
- You need an average portion of urine: the first stream is lowered into the toilet, and only after that collect the material in a jar.
The material should be transported carefully so that no foam appears.
For a correct result, the urine must be delivered within 2 hours.
Video: Tests for pregnant women: how to take a general urine test?
General urine analysis during pregnancy – the norm, which affects the result
In a general analysis, the acidity and density of urine is assessed.
The normal acidity index is 4-8
- With an increase in this level, we can talk about pathology in the functioning of the kidneys, parathyroid gland.
- Decreased levels indicate dehydration, lack of potassium.
Normal density values range from 1010 to 1025 g / l
- Increased density is noted in the presence of glucose, protein.
- The indicator below the norm is the reason for assessing the work of the kidneys, conducting a study for hormones.
The level of leukocytes is the most important parameter by which the state of the body is assessed: normally it does not exceed 6
- The appearance of white blood cells is a sign of fighting infection. With a slight increase (up to 10), the doctor will tell you to retake the analysis. If the leukocyte count has reached 40, then we are talking about pyelonephritis.
Protein in urine can appear for several reasons, and not all of them are dangerous.
Strong physical and emotional stress can lead to this. Upon re-delivery, the indicators will return to normal.
- However, in combination with increased leukocytes, fever, lower back pain, this may be an indication of pyelonephritis, and hospitalization is indicated for the woman.
- Also, high protein can be a sign of late toxicosis. This is one of the most severe complications of pregnancy, which is accompanied by severe headaches, nausea, and increased blood pressure. It can be fatal.
Detection of ketone bodies may indicate an infection – or an exacerbation of diabetes
Bacteria can also be found in the urine. In combination with the growth of leukocytes, this indicates the development of pyelonephritis. If the leukocytes are normal, then the presence of bacteria indicates cystitis.
Even in the absence of severe symptoms, this is an extremely negative phenomenon, since bacteria continue to multiply and eventually penetrate the kidneys.
Zimnitsky’s test in pregnant women
The analysis allows you to determine the density and volume of urine excreted at different times per day.
- Each portion of urine is collected in a separate jar, all containers are handed over for research.
- In addition, all liquids and food eaten are recorded during the 24 hours when the material was collected.
The difference is that the urine from the first trip to the toilet after sleep (at 6 am) is not used.
- The first collection is held at 9 am.
- Then the material is collected 7 more times with an interval of three hours – i.e., at 12.00, 15.00, 18.00, 21.00, 24.00, 3.00, 6.00.
All filled containers should be tightly closed and kept in the refrigerator.
- All urine is collected in 24 hours, i.e., if one bottle is not enough, you need to take as much as you need. If during the allotted period of time the required amount of urine has not accumulated, then the container is left empty.
The norms of the analysis carried out according to Zimnitsky for pregnant women are as follows:
- The volume of urine is 1500-2000 ml.
- The ratio of ingested and released fluid is 65-80%.
- During the day, 2/3 of the total urine volume should be excreted.
- Increased urination should occur after fluid intake.
- The density of urine in each container is less than 1.035 g / l.
- The specific gravity of urine is 1.003-1.035 g / l, in 1-2 containers it is more than 1.02 g / l.
A reduced density index less than 1.012 can be observed for the following reasons:
- Taking diuretics.
- Chronic renal failure.
- Diabetes insipidus.
- Severe heart failure.
- Long-term diet without salt and protein.
- Pyelonephritis, nephritis.
A result greater than 1.025 indicates the presence of sugar and protein due to:
- Diabetes mellitus.
- Nephrotic syndrome.
The volume of released fluid is also assessed.
A volume of more than 2000 ml can speak of:
- Diabetes insipidus.
- Large fluid intake.
- Renal failure.
- Diuretic use.
When the volume of urine excreted is less than 0.4 liters, we are talking about:
- Insufficient water intake.
- Pielo-, glomerulonephritis.
- Heart failure and swelling.
Urine analysis according to Nechiporenko during pregnancy
On the eve of urine collection, it is prohibited:
- Drink antibiotics and diuretics.
- Eat spicy and sweet foods.
- Change the drinking regime.
The analysis requires an average portion of urine from the first one after sleep.
Normal white blood cell count should not exceed 2000 per 1 ml, erythrocytes – 1000 per 1 ml, hyaline cylinders – 20 per 1 ml.
In case of deviations from normal indicators, additional diagnostics are required to establish the causes, including pyelo- and glomerulonephritis, tumors and kidney stones, cystitis.
Urine test during pregnancy
Bacteriological culture – growing bacteria in special conditions.
Preparation for the delivery of the analysis is no different from those discussed earlier.
Tank sowing is carried out 2 times – at the beginning of pregnancy, and at 36 weeks. This is done to identify Staphylococcus aureus.
In the case of kidney and bladder pathologies, the analysis will be carried out more often.
The research results are recorded in CFU / ml.
- In the absence of deviations, the indicator will be less than 1000 CFU / ml.
- The presence of infection will be indicated by a figure of more than 100,000 CFU / ml.
- An intermediate value is a reason for retaking the analysis.
The Bologny.ru website warns: only a doctor should make a diagnosis after an examination. Therefore, if you have doubts or alarming symptoms, you should definitely contact a specialist!
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