Morning sickness, known as toxicosis, affects almost all expectant mothers early in pregnancy. And most women by the 2nd trimester have only memories of this discomfort, dizziness and nausea. But in 1% of women, toxicosis reaches the most severe stage, causing repeated vomiting daily.
What is the danger of hyperemesis of pregnant women, and how to cope with it?
The content of the article:
- What is hyperemesis of pregnant women, how is it dangerous?
- Signs and symptoms of hyperemesis
- The main causes of indomitable vomiting of pregnant women
- What to do in case of excessive vomiting of pregnant women?
- Treatment of hyperemesis of pregnant women
What is hyperemesis of pregnant women, and how is it dangerous for a woman and an unborn child?
What is the difference between the usual nausea of the expectant mother and hyperemesis?
Almost 90% of expectant mothers are familiar with early nausea and vomiting. Moreover, nausea is not necessarily morning – it is often present throughout the day, causing discomfort, but not requiring hospitalization.
Based on the severity of the condition, toxicosis is classified by degrees:
- Easy: vomiting occurs up to 5 times a day, the general condition is quite satisfactory. With this degree of toxicosis, changes in tastes are characteristic, a sharp intolerance to various odors. As for the analyzes of urine / blood and sleep / appetite – all indicators remain normal.
- Moderate: vomiting increases up to 10 times a day, nausea becomes constant, food with liquid is practically not retained in the female body. The general condition worsens, sleep disturbances, loss of appetite and weight loss (up to 3-5 kg per week) are noted. Also, from the signs, hypotension with tachycardia can be observed, and acetone detected in the urine during the analysis.
- Severe (hyperemesis): vomiting becomes frequent – more than 20 times a day, there is a complete loss of appetite, sleep disturbance, sudden weight loss (up to 10 kg per week), apathy. Food with liquid cannot stay in the stomach.
With a mild course of hyperemesis, oral rehydration is sufficient to prevent new bouts of vomiting. Only 1% of women who require antiemetic drug therapy and hospital supervision are unlucky.
Why is repeated vomiting dangerous?
Possible complications of hyperemesis (from Latin – hyperemesis gravidarum) for the expectant mother include:
- Severe weight loss (5 to 20%).
- Dehydration and poor electrolyte balance.
- Mallory-Weiss syndrome.
- Vitamin deficiency.
- Complications after childbirth.
Possible complications for the fetus include prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation.
Vomiting by itself is not capable of harming the fetus, but the risk of complications is not caused by vomiting, but by its consequences. Namely, severe weight loss, malnutrition, electrolyte disharmony, etc., – which, in turn, can already lead to miscarriage, early childbirth, and the appearance of birth defects in the baby.
Signs and symptoms of hyperemesis – in what cases is it necessary to urgently see a doctor?
As a rule, the main symptoms of hyperemesis appear from the 4th to the 10th week of pregnancy and disappear by the 2nd trimester (but not in all).
The main signs of hyperemesis include:
- The early onset of symptoms is from 4-6 weeks.
- Repeated severe vomiting – more than 10-20 times per day, regardless of whether there is food in the stomach.
- Severe weight loss – 5-20%.
- Sleep disturbance and complete loss of appetite.
- Increased salivation.
- Strong sensitivity not only to tastes and smells, but also to sounds, bright light and one’s own movements.
- Rapid pulse and lowering blood pressure.
According to laboratory analyzes, HG is determined …
- An increase in the level of uric acid in the blood, the specific gravity of excreted urine, the activity of liver enzymes, bilirubin and creatinine.
- Electrolyte and metabolic imbalance.
- The presence of acetone in the urine.
- Abnormal thyroid hormone levels.
Hyperemesis can last until the 1st trimester or more – even until the very birth. Moreover, HG can “wander” from pregnancy to pregnancy, changing only in its intensity.
When is it worth calling a doctor?
In fact, you should see a doctor if you vomit repeatedly – even if your general condition remains satisfactory.
And you should immediately call an ambulance if repeated vomiting is accompanied by …
- The specific and dark color of urine, which may not be up to 6 hours.
- The presence of blood in the vomit.
- Great weakness up to fainting.
- Pain in the abdomen.
- An increase in temperature.
As a rule, with hyperemesis, you cannot do without hospitalization, because in this case, it is almost impossible to stop vomiting without harm to the baby with ordinary folk remedies.
The main causes of indomitable vomiting of pregnant women and the factors provoking it
Unfortunately, no one is able to name the exact reasons for hyperemesis, but there is an opinion that indomitable vomiting may be associated with an increase in hormone levels inherent in pregnancy (note – mainly gonadotropin produced from the 1st day of conception, as well as progesterone and estrogens ).
However, other, indirect factors that can cause hyperemesis include …
- The body’s response to pregnancy.
- Fatty foods and decreased gastric motility.
- Stress and depression.
- Impaired metabolism associated with diseases of the thyroid and liver.
- Infection (eg, H. pylori).
- Mental disorders.
What to do with excessive vomiting of pregnant women in the early or late stages – nausea prevention, nutrition, and lifestyle
The best first aid for a pregnant woman who is tormented by indomitable vomiting is an ambulance. The doctor will suppress the attack of vomiting with droperidol, prescribe the necessary medications and, after improvement, send him home.
Giving the expectant mother any antiemetic drugs by friendly or related self-prescription is categorically not recommended!
Moderate and severe toxicosis is a reason for hospitalization. If the state of hospitalization does not require – but is exhausting, you should “adjust” the lifestyle of the expectant mother to the most suitable for her in this situation.
Basic rules to follow for persistent nausea and vomiting:
- Meals should be fractional and frequent, at the optimum temperature. That is, you need to eat warm food, a little bit every 2-3 hours, and in the “reclining” position.
- We choose the food that does not cause the feeling of “rolling up the throat.” Here to each his own. For someone, porridge becomes salvation, for someone – fruits and vegetables, and someone, except for crackers, can not eat anything at all.
- We drink a lot. The more – the better, because it is necessary to replenish the deficiency of water and ions in the body, which is formed during repeated vomiting. What can a pregnant woman drink?
- We introduce food that is rich in potassium into the diet. For example, dried fruits, potatoes, persimmons with bananas. The ideal option is dried fruit compote.
- We move more and breathe fresh air, more often we ventilate the room.
- We eliminate (during pregnancy) everything that causes nausea with its smells. From food and cosmetics to flowers and perfumes.
- Do not forget about yoga for pregnant women and breathing exercises, which very much helps to fight the attacks of nausea.
- We do not go to bed after eating – we wait at least half an hour. Better yet, take a walk 15-20 minutes after eating.
- We use everything that can cause positive emotions and distract from nausea.
- We try not to take any medications at all, except for those that are vital and prescribed by a doctor.
- Before getting out of bed in the morning, you can eat some dry unsweetened cookies.
Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy: how to relieve an attack – folk remedies
- Grated carrot salad with apple without dressing (especially good in the morning – while still in bed).
- 2-3 lemon wedges. The main thing is not to abuse it. Better yet, add lemon to tea or just to water, so as not to harm the stomach.
- Ginger root. It needs to be crushed, poured into a glass 3 tbsp / spoon and boiled with boiling water. You can drink in small sips after the broth reaches the optimal temperature (becomes warm).
- Cranberries and lingonberries. You can eat it just like that. Can be squeezed with sugar and eaten on a spoon. And you can make fruit drinks. Cranberry is an excellent antiemetic and immunostimulating agent.
- Tea with mint and lemon balm. Also, mint leaves can be added simply to the water, to the lemon slices already floating there.
- 30 g of honey. It can be taken on an empty stomach, but it is recommended to drink it with warm water.
- Rosehip decoction. You can add a spoonful of honey to it, cooling until warm. Rosehip can also be added to tea.
Treatment of hyperemesis of pregnant women – what can a doctor recommend?
In a serious condition and repeated vomiting, hospitalization is always indicated to ensure …
- Balance electrolyte levels through intravenous administration of certain drugs.
- Artificial feeding of the expectant mother through a tube, when food does not stay in the stomach from the word “absolutely”.
- Control of treatment, implying a competent choice of drugs, bed rest, etc.
Treatment usually includes:
- Monitoring the dynamics of weight, acetone in urine and blood.
- Parenteral drug administration.
- Normalization of water balance and electrolyte levels.
- Taking special medications with antiemetic effects (such as metoclopramide)
- With severe dehydration, infusion therapy is performed.
It is important to understand that not a single article on the Internet, even the most informative one, can be a substitute for professional advice from a medical specialist. Self-prescribing medications (including homeopathic ones) and procedures is strictly prohibited!
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