Gestosis is a complication of important organs and body systems of a pregnant woman. The disease is very serious and dangerous. It can disrupt the functioning of the liver, kidneys, heart, vascular, endocrine systems. In the world, gestosis is manifested in a third of expectant mothers, and it can develop both against the background of a chronic disease and in a healthy woman.
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Types and degrees of gestosis in pregnant women
The disease begins to manifest itself already in the first stages of pregnancy. It often occurs from the first days and ends at the 20th week. Early gestosis does not pose a great threat to the mother and child. There are three degrees of severity of the disease:
- Lightweight. Toxicosis occurs in the morning. In total, it can appear 5 times a day. Appetite may disappear. A pregnant woman will lose weight by 2-3 kg. The general condition of the body is normal – the temperature is normal. Blood and urine tests are also normal.
- Average. Toxicosis increases up to 10 times a day. The time of manifestation is any and does not depend on nutrition. You can also lose 2-3 kg in 2 weeks. Body temperature usually rises and ranges from 37 to 37.5 degrees. The pulse quickens – 90-100 beats per minute. Urine tests differ in the presence of acetone.
- Heavy. Toxicosis is constantly observed. Vomiting can be up to 20 times a day, or even more. The general state of health deteriorates sharply. A pregnant woman loses up to 10 kg due to poor appetite. The temperature will rise to 37.5 degrees. Rapid pulse is also noted – 110-120 beats per minute, sleep disturbance, low blood pressure. Mom will constantly want to drink, as the body will suffer from dehydration. The tests will be poor: acetone and protein are observed in the urine, which is washed out from the body, in the blood – increased hemoglobin, bilirubin, creatinine.
In the case when the disease lasts longer than 20 weeks, it is called late gestosis. There are several stages of late gestosis:
- At stage 1, edema occurs. A pregnant woman will notice them by numbness and thickening of the toes and hands.
- Stage 2 – nephropathy. The expectant mother’s blood pressure rises. It may cause bleeding or placental abruption.
- At stage 3, preeclampsia occurs. A protein indicator appears in urine tests. The body does not accept protein and excretes it. A pregnant woman may experience headache, toxicosis, insomnia, abdominal pain, impaired memory and vision.
- Stage 4 – eclampsia. Convulsions and loss of consciousness appear. In an acute form, a woman may fall into a coma.
Rare types of gestosis
Doctors distinguish between some other forms of manifestation of gestosis. These include:
- Jaundice. May occur in the 2nd trimester due to viral hepatitis.
- Dermatosis. It manifests itself in different forms – there may be urticaria, eczema, herpes, allergic manifestations on the skin.
- Liver dystrophy. This disease is also called fatty hepatosis. With it, the activity of the kidneys and liver is noticeably reduced.
- Tetania of pregnant women. Due to a lack of calcium and vitamin D, dysfunction of the thyroid gland, convulsions may occur.
- Osteomalacia is the softening of bones. It also appears due to a lack of calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, malfunctioning of the thyroid gland.
- Arthropathy. For the same reasons, the bones of the pelvis and joints may not heal properly.
- Chorea. Develops against the background of mental disorders. A pregnant woman may involuntarily begin to move parts of her body, and may find it difficult to speak or swallow.
Signs of early and late gestosis during pregnancy – diagnosis
You can notice early gestosis by the following symptoms:
- Loss of appetite.
- Changes in taste and smell.
Late gestosis is characterized by the following signs:
- High blood pressure.
- Indicator of protein in urine.
- Violation of the emotional state.
- Elevated temperature.
- Stomach ache.
- Visual impairment.
- Memory loss.
The main causes of gestosis during pregnancy
Doctors still do not come to the same opinion about the reasons for the appearance of preeclampsia. Here are the main reasons for the onset of the disease:
- Hormonal effects, manifested through the destruction of the placenta.
- Toxic poisoning of the body. Moreover, both mom and unborn child can release toxins.
- Allergic manifestation, expressed through vomiting or miscarriage. An allergy occurs due to the incompatibility of the tissues of the ovum of the parents.
- Immunological response of the body. Due to disorders of the immune system, the mother’s body rejects the fetus.
- Neuroreflex action. A growing man can irritate endometrial receptors and provoke a negative reaction of the autonomic nervous system.
- Mental perception. Mom may be afraid of pregnancy, future childbirth and will set herself up so that the processes of inhibition and excitation of the central nervous system will begin to be disrupted in her body.
- The genetic response of the body.
Risks of gestosis in pregnant women – what is the danger of the disease for mom and baby?
The risk of gestosis in a pregnant woman is great. The main factors in which the disease can occur are:
- Extragenital pathology. Cardiovascular diseases, kidney and liver diseases develop. The endocrine system and metabolism are disrupted.
- Bad habits – alcoholism, smoking, drug addiction.
- Ecological problems.
- Unfavorable social conditions.
- Incorrect diet.
- Diseases depending on the hazards of labor production.
- Violation of the schedule of rest and sleep.
- Age – under 18 and over 35.
- Multiple pregnancies.
- Genital infantilism.
- Hereditary gestosis.
- Chronic infections.
- Poor immune system.
- Abnormalities of the internal organs of the pelvis.
- Lupus erythematosus.
- Negative personal attitude towards pregnancy.
- Diseases of the thyroid gland.
The disease should be taken seriously. If there is a risk to life, or if there is a complication, mommy should immediately consult a doctor.
Gestosis is dangerous during pregnancy.
The expectant mother may experience:
- Headaches, dizziness.
- Vision will deteriorate.
- Acute respiratory failure.
- Kidney damage.
- Damage to the central nervous system.
- Destruction of brain cells.
Of course, gestosis affects the development of the little man. He can observe developmental delay, hypoxia.
In addition, the placenta may exfoliate and a miscarriage will occur.
The Bologny.ru website warns: the information is provided for informational purposes only, and is not a medical recommendation. Do not self-medicate under any circumstances! If you have any health problems, consult your doctor!
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