Rubella is spread by the RNA virus of rubella. Infection occurs by airborne droplets from carriers of the virus or from sick people. Having recovered from rubella, a person receives indefinite immunity to the disease. The incubation period, on average, is two to three weeks, but may increase or decrease.
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The first signs and symptoms of measles rubella in children
Rubella in children immediately manifests itself in an acute form. In the absence of any precursors of the disease, it immediately appears characteristic red rash. Before the rash appears, about a day before, the child may complain of headaches and be capricious. Mild signs of a cold may appear in the nasopharynx or throat.
On the mucous membrane of the pharynx, before the appearance of a body rash or simultaneously with a rash, pale pink small specks – enanthema… Usually in children, it has a mild, dull character. It is possible with rubella inflammation of the oral mucosa.
Early signs of rubella in babies include swollen lymph nodes, especially the occipital, parotid and posterior cervical. Such a symptom may appear in a child two to three days before the appearance of a body rash. After the rash disappears (after a few days), the lymph nodes decrease to normal size. This symptom is most often used for the early diagnosis of rubella disease.
In about fifty percent of cases, it is possible the manifestation of the disease in an erased form… This is especially dangerous for those who do not yet have immunity from rubella, that is, have not had this disease.
Summarizing all of the above, let’s highlight the main symptoms of rubella in children:
- A sharp increase in body temperature up to forty degrees;
- Skin rashes on the legs, arms, face and neck;
- Swollen glands in the neck
- Sore throat;
- Convulsions are possible.
Features of the treatment of measles rubella in a child – how is rubella in children treated today?
- Rubella treatment in children is usually done at home. When a rash appears, the child needs bed rest.
- It is also necessary to provide the baby with plenty of drink and good nutrition.
- No specific treatment is performed. Symptomatic medications are sometimes prescribed.
- In case of complications of the disease the child must be urgently hospitalized.
- To prevent the spread of the disease, the child is isolated for five days from the moment of the rash from persons who did not suffer from rubella.
- It is very important to exclude the contact of a sick child with a pregnant woman. If a woman in position gets sick with rubella, fetal malformations may occur.
- Treatment of children prone to allergic reactions and with an itchy rash, should be accompanied by the use of antihistamines.
- If symptoms of joint damage are detected local heat and analgesics are applied.
- With damage to the nervous system requires immediate hospitalization and emergency treatment, including anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, dehydration and detoxification therapy.
There is currently no specific treatment for rubella.
Potential consequences and complications of rubella in children – is rubella dangerous for a child?
Almost all children tolerate rubella well.
- In minor cases, complications may appear, manifested in the form sore throats, laryngitis, pharyngitis, otitis media.
- Isolated cases of rubella may be accompanied by joint damage or the development of arthritis with pain, swelling and high fever.
- Particularly severe complications of rubella include meningitis, encephalitis and meningoencephalitis… The latter complications are more common in adults than in children.
Prevention of rubella in children – when to get a child rubella vaccine?
Vaccination is provided to prevent rubella. A special vaccination calendar indicates the age of the child when it is necessary to get vaccinated.
Most countries are vaccinated against mumps, rubella and measles at the same time.
- Starting from the age of one to one and a half years, the first vaccination is given to the baby by the intramuscular or subcutaneous method.
- Re-vaccination is required at the age of six.
All people, without exception, after receiving the vaccination, after twenty days develop specific immunity against rubella. It has been holding for over twenty years.
However, rubella vaccination has its own contraindications:
- In no case should the rubella vaccine be given to people who suffer from secondary or primary immunodeficiency, as well as allergies to chicken eggs and neomycin.
- If allergy has occurred to other vaccinations, rubella vaccination should also be excluded.
All information in this article is provided for educational purposes only, it may not correspond to the specific circumstances of your health, and is not a medical recommendation. The site сolady.ru reminds you that you should never delay or ignore a visit to a doctor.
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