Every baby born into the world perceives the world through hearing, sight and touch. Unfortunately, not every baby is favored by nature, and sometimes a child is born with some kind of impairment. Babies with visual impairments see the world in a completely different way, and their upbringing and development has its own characteristics. Correct upbringing of such a child is very important for his development, subsequent adaptation at school and in later life. What you need to know about the development of children with vision problems?
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Classification of visual impairment in children
- Lightest Known Violations – functional. These are cataracts, strabismus, astigmatism, corneal opacity, myopia, etc. If measures are taken in a timely manner, then there is a chance to correct this condition.
- Disorders that affect the structure of the eye and other parts of the visual system are called organic. The cause is violations and abnormalities of the eyes, diseases of the retina, optic nerve, etc.
Unfortunately, when diagnosing visual impairments in many children, other disorders are also revealed – cerebral palsy, hearing impairment, mental retardation, etc.
Visual impairment in children is divided into three types:
- Strabismus and amblyopia (visual acuity below 0.3).
- Visually impaired child (visual acuity 0.05-0.2 in the best seeing eye, with correction).
- Blind child (visual acuity 0.01-0.04 in the best seeing eye).
Concerning causes of visual impairment, they are divided into
- acquired (for example, due to injury),
Features of education and development of children with visual impairment
As you know, babies with visual impairments get to know the world around them. through touch and hearing, to a greater extent. As a result, their idea of the world is formed differently than that of seeing children. The quality and structure of sensory images are also different. For example, children recognize a bird or transport by sounds, and not by their external signs. Therefore, one of the main points in raising kids with such problems is focusing on different sounds… The participation of specialists in the life of such children is an obligatory part of their upbringing for normal development.
What are the features of teaching children with vision problems?
- Decreased vision affects not only the process of studying the surrounding world, but also on the development of speech, imagination of the child and his memory… Children with visual impairments are often unable to understand words correctly, given the poor relationship between words and real objects. Therefore, it is rather difficult to do without the help of a speech therapist.
- Physical activity – an important component of treatment and development. Namely, outdoor games, which are necessary to stimulate vision, strengthen muscles, develop coordination of movement, and teach the necessary skills. Of course, only taking into account the recommendations of the ophthalmologist and the baby’s diagnosis, in order to avoid the opposite effect.
- Be sure to learn the correct orientation in space by completing certain tasks / exercises.
- When teaching a child any action, he repeat many times until its implementation comes to automatism. Learning is accompanied by words and comments so that the baby understands what exactly he is doing and why.
- As for toys – they should be large and certainly bright (not poisonous bright). It is advisable not to forget about musical toys and those designed to stimulate tactile sensations.
- Within the family parents should involve the child in the implementation of household chores… You should not limit the child’s communication with children who do not have vision problems.
Kindergartens with visual impairments are an excellent option for raising and teaching visually impaired children
All children need education, both school and preschool. And babies with visual impairments – in special education… Of course, if the violations are not too serious, then the child can study in a regular kindergarten (school), as a rule – using glasses or contact lenses to correct vision. In order to avoid various unpleasant situations, other children should be aware of the health features of a visually impaired child.
Why is it better to send a child to a specialized kindergarten?
- The education and development of children in such kindergartens takes place taking into account the characteristics of the disease…
- In a specialized kindergarten, the child gets everything what he needs for normal development (not only knowledge, but also appropriate treatment).
- There are fewer groups in these gardens than in ordinary ones. – about 8-15 people. That is, more attention is paid to children.
- For teaching children in kindergartens, use special equipment and techniques…
- In a group of visually impaired children no one will tease the child – that is, the child’s self-esteem will not fall. Read: What to do if your child is bullied at school.
Besides specialized gardens, there are also special children’s vision correction centers… With their help, it will be easier for parents to cope with the learning and development problems of a visually impaired child.
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