Some moms and dads are well familiar with the abbreviation ZPR, which hides such a diagnosis as mental retardation, which is increasingly common today. Despite the fact that this diagnosis is rather a recommendation than a sentence, for many parents it becomes a bolt from the blue.
What is hidden under this diagnosis, who has the right to make it, and what should parents know?
The content of the article:
- What is ZPR – classification of ZPR
- Causes of mental retardation in a child
- Who can diagnose a child with CRD and when?
- Signs of CRD – developmental features of children
- What if a child has been diagnosed with CRD?
What is mental retardation, or PDA – classification of PDA
The first thing that mothers and fathers need to understand is that CRD is not an irreversible mental underdevelopment, and has nothing to do with oligophrenia and other terrible diagnoses.
ZPR (and ZPRR) is only a slowdown in the pace of development, usually found in front of the school… With a competent approach to solving the problem of WIP, the problem simply ceases to be (and in a very short time).
It is also important to note that, unfortunately, today such a diagnosis can be made from the ceiling, based only on minimal information and the child’s lack of desire to communicate with specialists.
But the topic of unprofessionalism is not at all in this article. Here we are talking about the fact that the diagnosis of CRD is a reason for parents to think about it, and pay more attention to their child, listen to the advice of specialists, and direct their energy in the right direction.
Video: Mental retardation in children
How is CRA classified – the main groups of mental development
This classification, which is based on etiopathogenetic systematics, was developed in the 80s by K.S. Lebedinskaya.
- CRA of constitutional origin. Signs: slenderness and growth below average, preservation of children’s facial features even at school age, instability and severity of manifestations of emotions, a delay in the development of the emotional sphere, manifested in all spheres of infantilism. Often, among the causes of this type of CRD, a hereditary factor is determined, and quite often this group includes twins whose mothers have encountered pathologies during pregnancy. For children with such a diagnosis, as a rule, it is recommended to study in a correctional school.
- CRA of somatogenic origin. The list of reasons includes severe somatic illnesses that were transferred in early childhood. For example, asthma, problems of the respiratory or cardiovascular system, etc. Children in this group of DPD are fearful and unsure of themselves, and are often deprived of communication with their peers because of the annoying guardianship of parents, who for some reason decided that communication was difficult for children. With this type of DPD, treatment in special sanatoriums is recommended, and the form of training depends on each specific case.
- CRA of psychogenic origin. Quite a rare type of ZPR, however, as in the case of the previous type. For the occurrence of these two forms of cerebrovascular accidents, severely unfavorable conditions of a somatic or microsocial nature must be created. The main reason is the unfavorable conditions of parenting, which caused certain disturbances in the process of forming the personality of a little person. For example, overprotection or neglect. In the absence of problems with the central nervous system, children from this group of DPD quickly overcome the difference in development with other children in the conditions of an ordinary school. It is important to distinguish this type of CRD from pedagogical neglect.
- CRA of cerebral-organic genesis… The most numerous (according to statistics – up to 90% of all cases of PDD) is the PDA group. And also the most difficult and easily diagnosed. Key reasons: birth injuries, diseases of the central nervous system, intoxication, asphyxia and other situations that arise during pregnancy or directly during childbirth. From the signs, one can distinguish bright and clearly observed symptoms of emotional-volitional immaturity and organic insufficiency of the nervous system.
The main reasons for the onset of mental retardation in a child – who is at risk for MRI, what factors provoke MRI?
The reasons provoking CRA can be roughly divided into 3 groups.
The first group includes problem pregnancies:
- Chronic diseases of the mother that affected the health of the child (heart disease and diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease, etc.).
- Infectious diseases transferred by the expectant mother (flu and tonsillitis, mumps and herpes, rubella, etc.).
- Mom’s bad habits (nicotine, etc.).
- Incompatibility of Rh factors with the fetus.
- Toxicosis, both early and late.
- Early childbirth.
The second group includes the reasons that took place during childbirth:
- Asphyxia. For example, after the umbilical cord is entwined around the crumbs.
- Birth trauma.
- Or mechanical injuries arising from the illiteracy and unprofessionalism of health workers.
And the third group is the reasons of a social nature:
- The dysfunctional family factor.
- Limited emotional contact at various stages of the baby’s development.
- Low level of intelligence of parents and other family members.
- Pedagogical neglect.
Risk factors for the onset of CRA include:
- Complicated first childbirth.
- “Old-giving birth” mother.
- Excess weight of the expectant mother.
- The presence of pathologies in previous pregnancies and childbirth.
- The presence of chronic diseases of the mother, including diabetes.
- Stress and depression of the expectant mother.
- Unwanted pregnancy.
Who and when can diagnose a child with CR or CR?
Today, on the Internet, you can read a lot of stories about the diagnosis of PDI (or even more complex diagnoses) by an ordinary neuropathologist from a polyclinic.
Mom and Dad, remember the main thing: a neuropathologist has no right to single-handedly make such a diagnosis!
- The diagnosis of DPD or DPRD (note – delayed mental and speech development) can only be made by decision of the PMPK (note – psychological, medical and pedagogical commission).
- The main task of the PMPK is to diagnose or remove a diagnosis of MRI or “mental retardation”, autism, cerebral palsy, etc., as well as to determine what kind of educational program the child needs, whether he needs additional classes, and so on.
- The commission usually includes several specialists: a speech pathologist, a speech therapist and a psychologist, a psychiatrist. As well as the teacher, the child’s parents and the administration of the educational institution.
- On what basis does the commission draw conclusions about the presence or absence of the WIP? Specialists communicate with the child, test his skills (including writing and reading), give tasks for logic, mathematics, and so on.
As a rule, a similar diagnosis appears in children in medical records at the age of 5-6 years.
What do parents need to know?
- ZPR is not a verdict, but a recommendation of specialists.
- In most cases, by the age of 10, this diagnosis is canceled.
- The diagnosis cannot be made by 1 person. It is placed only by the decision of the commission.
- According to the Federal State Educational Standard, the problem in mastering the material of the general education program by 100% (in full) is not a reason for transferring a child to another form of education, to a correctional school, etc. There is no law that obliges parents to transfer children who have not passed the commission to a special class or a special boarding school.
- Members of the commission have no right to put pressure on parents.
- Parents have the right to refuse to take this PMPK.
- Members of the commission do not have the right to report diagnoses in the presence of the children themselves.
- When making a diagnosis, one cannot rely only on neurological symptoms.
Signs and symptoms of CRD in a child – features of the development of children, behavior, habits
Parents can recognize CRA or at least take a closer look and pay special attention to the problem on the following grounds:
- The kid is not able to independently wash his hands and put on shoes, brush his teeth, etc., although by age he must already do everything himself (or the child can do everything and can, but simply does it more slowly than other children).
- The child is withdrawn, shuns adults and peers, rejects collectives. This symptom may also indicate autism.
- The child often displays anxiety or aggression, but in most cases remains fearful and indecisive.
- At the “baby” age, the baby is late with the ability to hold the head, pronounce the first syllables, etc.
Video: The emotional sphere of a child with CRD
Other signs include symptoms of underdevelopment of the emotional-volitional sphere.
A child with CRA …
- Tires quickly and has a low level of performance.
- Not able to assimilate the entire volume of work / material.
- It is difficult to analyze information from the outside and for full perception must be guided by visual aids.
- Has difficulty with verbal and logical thinking.
- Has difficulty communicating with other children.
- Not able to play role-playing games.
- Has difficulty organizing its activities.
- Experiencing difficulties in mastering the general education program.
- Children with mental retardation quickly catch up with their peers if they are provided with correctional and pedagogical assistance on time.
- Most often, the diagnosis of CRD is made in a situation where the main symptom is a low level of memory and attention, as well as the speed and transition of all mental processes.
- It is extremely difficult to diagnose CRD at preschool age, and almost impossible at the age of 3 years (unless there are very clear signs). An accurate diagnosis can be made only after psychological and pedagogical observation of a child at the age of a junior schoolchild.
DPD in each baby manifests itself individually, however, the main signs for all groups and degrees of DPD are:
- Difficulty performing (by the child) actions that require specific volitional efforts.
- Problems with building a holistic image.
- Easy memorization of visual material and difficult – verbal.
- Problems with the development of speech.
Children with CRD certainly require a more delicate and attentive attitude towards themselves.
But it is important to understand and remember that CRA is not an obstacle to learning and mastering school material. Depending on the diagnosis and developmental characteristics of the baby, the school course can only be slightly adjusted for a certain period of time.
What to do if a child has been diagnosed with CRD – instructions for parents
The most important thing that the parents of a baby who have suddenly been given the “stigma” of CRA should do is to calm down and realize that the diagnosis is conditional and approximate, that everything is in order with their child, and he simply develops at an individual pace, and that everything will definitely work out , because, we repeat, ZPR is not a sentence.
But it is also important to understand that CRA is not age-related acne on the face, but mental retardation. That is, you shouldn’t wave your hand at the diagnosis.
What do parents need to know?
- CRA is not a final diagnosis, but a temporary condition, but requiring competent and timely correction so that the child can catch up with his peers to a normal state of intelligence and psyche.
- For most children with CRD, a special school or class is a great opportunity to speed up the problem-solving process. Correction must be done on time, otherwise time will be lost. Therefore, the position “I am in the house” is not correct here: the problem cannot be ignored, it must be solved.
- When studying in a special school, a child is, as a rule, ready to return to a regular class by the beginning of secondary school, and the diagnosis of DPD by itself will not affect the child’s further life.
- Accurate diagnosis is essential. Diagnosis cannot be made by general practitioners – only mental / intellectual disability specialists.
- Do not sit still – contact a specialist. You will need consultations from a psychologist, speech therapist, neurologist, defectologist and neuropsychiatrist.
- Choose special didactic games, according to the child’s abilities, develop memory and logical thinking.
- Attend FEMP classes with your child – and teach them to be independent.
Well, among the main recommendations are classic tips: create favorable conditions for your child to develop without stress, teach them to the daily routine – and love your child!
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